It increases credibility of the paper and makes good impression about its author. More helpful hints about Writing a Research Paper. An informal outline working outline is a tool helping an author put down and organize their ideas. It is subject to revision, addition and canceling, without paying much attention to form. In a formal outline, numbers and letters are used to arrange topics and subtopics.
The letters and numbers of the same kind should be placed directly under one another. The topics denoted by their headings and subheadings should be grouped in a logical order. All points of a research paper outline must relate to the same major topic that you first mentioned in your capital Roman numeral. The purpose of an outline is to help you think through your topic carefully and organize it logically before you start writing.
A good outline is the most important step in writing a good paper. Check your outline to make sure that the points covered flow logically from one to the other. Make the first outline tentative. What is the chief reason you are writing the paper? State also how you plan to approach your topic. Is this a factual report, a book review, a comparison, or an analysis of a problem?
Explain briefly the major points you plan to cover in your paper and why readers should be interested in your topic. BODY — This is where you present your arguments to support your thesis statement.
Remember the Rule of 3, i. Begin with a strong argument, then use a stronger one, and end with the strongest argument for your final point. Explain why you have come to this particular conclusion. Organize all the information you have gathered according to your outline. Critically analyze your research data. Using the best available sources, check for accuracy and verify that the information is factual, up-to-date, and correct.
Opposing views should also be noted if they help to support your thesis. This is the most important stage in writing a research paper. Here you will analyze, synthesize, sort, and digest the information you have gathered and hopefully learn something about your topic which is the real purpose of doing a research paper in the first place.
You must also be able to effectively communicate your thoughts, ideas, insights, and research findings to others through written words as in a report, an essay, a research or term paper, or through spoken words as in an oral or multimedia presentation with audio-visual aids. Do not include any information that is not relevant to your topic, and do not include information that you do not understand.
Make sure the information that you have noted is carefully recorded and in your own words, if possible. Plagiarism is definitely out of the question. Document all ideas borrowed or quotes used very accurately. As you organize your notes, jot down detailed bibliographical information for each cited paragraph and have it ready to transfer to your Works Cited page.
Devise your own method to organize your notes. One method may be to mark with a different color ink or use a hi-liter to identify sections in your outline, e. Group your notes following the outline codes you have assigned to your notes, e. This method will enable you to quickly put all your resources in the right place as you organize your notes according to your outline. Start with the first topic in your outline. Read all the relevant notes you have gathered that have been marked, e.
Summarize, paraphrase or quote directly for each idea you plan to use in your essay. Use a technique that suits you, e. Mark each card or sheet of paper clearly with your outline code or reference, e. Put all your note cards or paper in the order of your outline, e. If using a word processor, create meaningful filenames that match your outline codes for easy cut and paste as you type up your final paper, e.
Before you know it, you have a well organized term paper completed exactly as outlined. The unusual symbol will make it easy for you to find the exact location again. Delete the symbol once editing is completed. Read your paper for any content errors. Double check the facts and figures. Arrange and rearrange ideas to follow your outline.
Reorganize your outline if necessary, but always keep the purpose of your paper and your readers in mind. Use a free grammar and proof reading checker such as Grammarly. Is my thesis statement concise and clear? Did I follow my outline? Did I miss anything? Are my arguments presented in a logical sequence? Are all sources properly cited to ensure that I am not plagiarizing? Have I proved my thesis with strong supporting arguments? Have I made my intentions and points clear in the essay? Re-read your paper for grammatical errors.
Use a dictionary or a thesaurus as needed. Do a spell check. Correct all errors that you can spot and improve the overall quality of the paper to the best of your ability. Get someone else to read it over. Sometimes a second pair of eyes can see mistakes that you missed. Did I begin each paragraph with a proper topic sentence? Have I supported my arguments with documented proof or examples? Any run-on or unfinished sentences? Any unnecessary or repetitious words? Varying lengths of sentences?
Does one paragraph or idea flow smoothly into the next? Any spelling or grammatical errors? Quotes accurate in source, spelling, and punctuation? Are all my citations accurate and in correct format? Did I avoid using contractions? Did I use third person as much as possible? Ask an interesting question: What are the effects of television violence on children?
Revise the question into a thesis: Violence on television increases aggressive behavior in preschool children. As you read you may discover evidence that may affect your stance.
It is okay to revise your thesis! For more ideas on brainstorming visit Purdue's Thought Starters. Create a list of sample questions to guide your research: Is it a thesis? Although both chefs and cooks can prepare fine meals, chefs differ from cooks in education, professional commitment, and artistry.
A first water rafting experience can challenge the body and spirit and transform an adolescent into an adult. Our American family structure encourages men to repress their true feelings, leaving them open to physical, psychological, and relationship difficulties. Steroids, even those legally available, are addictive and should be banned from sports. Though many people dismiss hip hop as offensive, hip hop music offers urban youth an important opportunity for artistic expression, and allows them to articulate the poetry of the street.
Despite their high-tech special effects, today's graphically violent horror movies do not convey the creative use of cinematography or the emotional impact that we saw in the classic horror films of the s and 50s.
Other examples from St. Thesis Resources on the Web. Harvard University's Developing a Thesis. Indiana University's How to Write a Thesis. University of Wisconsin's Developing a Thesis Statement. Dartmouth's Developing a Thesis. Hunter College's Developing a Thesis.
A thesis statement is defined as a statement in a paper or essay that states the claim of the argument presented. Sometimes a thesis statement includes a brief summary of the reasons that will be addressed to support the thesis later in the writing. A tentative thesis statement suggests a general argument but is lacking specific details or claims.
Developing a Tentative Thesis. The thesis statement of an essay is to your argument paper what the topic sentence is to the paragraph: a guide, a control--a single promise. It indicates the subject, the approach, and the limitations of your topic. It also suggests your position, your attitude, and a commitment to the subject.
A tentative thesis is a statement in an essay that explains the overall purpose of the piece and provides focus for the content within the academic paper. The term tentative refers to a thesis that is in progress and open to revision as the essay is written and developed. A tentative thesis, or. A tentative thesis statement suggests a general argument but is lacking specific details or claims. A thesis statement is defined as a statement in a paper or essay that states the claim of the argument presented.
Since a tentative thesis is intended to guide your research and the whole process of writing rather than to be your final statement on the discussed problem or issue, don’t try to make it perfect. Instead, you need to formulate a preliminary position on the given topic. A thesis statement is the focus of the paper's subject. It is usually a sentence to two sentences long and is the controlling idea. This statement reinforces the decisions the writer has made about.